Ensemble for Medieval Music. Benjamin Bagby, Director

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Sequentia celebrates its 40th anniversary in March 2017




Katja Zimmermann

(exclusive of Europe)

Seth Cooper
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In association for
Season 2016-2017 with:

Jon Aaron
Aaron Concert Artists 
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New York City 10039, NY / USA
Tel: 212-665-0313


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Program Archive

Lost Songs of a Rhineland Harper

V. The Harper in the Snakepit

Atli sendi ar til Gunnars

(Iceland, 10c.)

This is the Old Icelandic Atlakvida ("Lay of Attila the Hun"), the earliest-known retelling of the famous Rhinegold tale and its violent end. In earlier tales, we learn of how Sigurd (in later versions known as Siegfried) killed the dragon Fafnir and stole the gold, and of the ensuing miseries caused by this theft. At this point in the vast legend, Sigurd's widow, Gudrun, has been remarried to the Hunnish King, Atli (Attila), who wants to lure her brothers to visit him, to force them to reveal the whereabouts of the cursed gold. The story takes place in Germanic lands, along the Rhine, even in the mythical "Mirkwood Forest", and it was certainly known to our harper in its orally-transmitted Germanic version. But it has survived in writing only in Iceland, as part of the famous Edda collection. This tale of gold-greed, betrayal and murder is sometimes called ‘The Greenlandic Lay of Atli’, and as such was probably among the first European songs heard in North America, as Norsemen inhabited the earliest white settlements in "Vinland" (now in Newfoundland) more than a thousand years ago.

Text: Atli sent a messenger, and invitedthe brothers Gunnar and Hogni for a banquet, promising rich gifts, but their sister Gudrun sent a warning to her brothers. She hid a message on a gold ring with a wolf's hair wrapped around it. However, Atli's men detected the warning and altered the ring before handing it to Gunnar. The wolf's hair remained as a dire omen. Despite protests and tears, dreams and premonitions against going, a warrior's courage despises caution. Then Gunnar and Hogni rode toward their fate. The valiant warriors galloped through Mirkwood toward their doom. The earth shook as the brave men rumbled across the plains. Gunnar and his men were welcomed into Atli's splendid compound hung with marvelous shields, lances and pennants. But Atli's watchtowers were full of sharp things.

(Gudrun:) "You have been betrayed, Gunnar. Atli intends to kill you. You should have stayed in the saddle, for now the snake-pit lies waiting for Hogni and you."

(Gunnar:) "It's too late now, sister, to summon the Nibelungen - we're a long way from our valiant fighters on the Rhine."

Gunnar was captured, bound and tied. But Hogni fought on. Seven men were cut down by his sword and the eighth was shoved into a fire. Then Hogni too was captured. They asked Gunnar if we would reveal the hiding place of the Rhinegold in exchange for Hogni's life.

(Gunnar:) "Hogni's heart must first lie in my hand, cut bleeding from the breast with cruel-slitting knife".

Trying to trick him, they cut out the heart of Hialli and gave it to him on a platter.

(Gunnar.) "This is the heart of Hialli the coward, look how it quivers on the platter, just as it quivered in his breast."

Then Hogni laughed, deep and loud as the blade plunged into his breast. The bloody heart was placed on a platter and brought before Gunnar.

(Gunnar:) "Unlike the heart of the feeble coward, Hogni's heart hardly quivers. When it was in Hogni's breast it quivered even less. Atli, now that Hogni is dead, only I know where Fafnir's gold is. The Rhine shall be master of the metal of men's strife, the god-sprung river will rule the inheritance of the Nibelungen, in rolling waters and not shining in the hands of the Hun's children."

Then the valiant warrior wrapped in chains rode a chariot through a gawking crowd on his way to dying. Gunnar was lowered into a pit squirming with poisonous serpents. And in the pit, with hate in his soul, he played the harp (which Gudrun had sent him) with his bound hands. He played it fearlessly and sang of his fate. And so the valiant warrior died.

Then Atli with his men, drunk on victory, were received by Gudrun who fought back her rage and tears. She offered her husband a personal toast, with gilded cup.

(Gudrun:) "My lord, accept this toast from your wife who rejoices as a wife should, but who as your enemy's kin mourns as she should. You are welcome, here in your hall, to enjoy Gudrun's freshly-killed young game to eat."

With gleaming face the daemonic woman darted to bring more drink. Thick with ale, Atli barely heard Gudrun's words. He downed her gift of ale. His warriors, too, knee deep in drink, noticed nothing strange. Then Gudrun served tasty morsels of meat to Atli, and the horror spewed forth from Gudrun's lips.

(Gudrun:) "My lord, blood mixed with ale you are drinking, human flesh dressed with honey you are chewing. Never again will you bounce our two boys on your knees. Never again will you teach them your warrior's skills. Never again will they ride their fine stallions. My lord, from their little skulls, you eat your children's flesh."

A monstrous moaning filled the victor's splendid hall, the weeping and howling of an entire clan, all except Gudrun. Then she scattered all the gold of the kingdom to whomever desired it. She cared nothing of gold, it was gold that brought this horror about, it was gold that killed her love, it was gold that destroyed kith and kin. Then Gudrun stabbed the drunken Atli where he lay, and with the sword-point she gave the bedding blood to drink. She set loose the hounds and servants, and then tossed flaming firebrands across the entrance doors, barring exit. The ancient timbers came crashing down and smoke and fire consumed all within.

The whole tale is told: never after her will any wife go thus in armor to avenge her brothers. She caused the death of three kings, that bright lady, before she died.

(Translation: based on the translation of Ursula Dronke, as retold by Ping Chong and Benjamin Bagby [abridged])

Upcoming Concerts

05 October 2017
Paris (FR), Musée de Cluny
Monks Singing Pagans

09 to 13 October 2017
Venice (IT), Fondazione Cini
Seminar Roman de Fauvel

20 April 2018
Konstanz, D
Oswald in Konstanz

See full concert schedule



Benjamin Bagby's recent activities as teacher/lecturer, linked to his performances

At the invitation of the music department, Benjamin taught a performance workshop on the music of Hildegard von Bingen for students at Princeton University (29 March), where he also performed 'Beowulf' in a collaborative production with digital light designer Craig Winslow. Following this, at the invitation of the medieval studies program and the English department, he gave a lecture on his work with reconstructing the 'Beowulf' performance, at Yale University (3 April).

At the Université Paris – Sorbonne, where Benjamin is on the faculty, the yearly 'Entretiens de la musique ancienne' were held this year in honor of his life-long work with reconstructing 'lost songs'. The main event was his performance of 'Beowulf' (11 May), with French video titles, in the Amphithéâtre Richelieu of the Sorbonne, followed by two days of symposium at the university's Centre Clignancourt, sponsored by the historical music organization IREMUS and the musicology department of the university. During this symposium, Benjamin gave a lecture on his work with reconstructed harps and the kinds of clues they can provide ('Beowulf ': dans l'atelier d'un conteur d'histoires).


2017 Barbara Thornton Memorial Scholarship awarded by Early Music America to string-player Allison Monroe

This scholarship is given by EMA to “an outstanding and highly-motivated (and possibly unconventional) young performer of medieval music who seeks to widen his/her experience through more advanced study and/or auditions in Europe.”  The recipient is chosen by a jury of musicians who knew or worked with the great medieval music specialist and teacher, Barbara Thornton (1950-1998), who co-founded Sequentia together with Benjamin Bagby in 1977. Read more about Allison here.

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